Photo credit: Mariusz Prusaczyk, | Obtained with license

A primary research project featuring interviews with The World Bank Lead Urban Specialist, Catherine Farvacque-Vitkovic, the mayor of Kanifing and other city officials in The Gambia. Spring of 2018, Manchester Business School.

Economists like to define the conditions under which free markets can operate. And these usually include things like sound currency and may even say an effective enforced clear legal system to enforce contracts and legal certainty. …

Success vs. Failure in Innovation Case Study

Graphic: By Illustrator Victoria-Semykina

This report was written at Manchester Business School, Spring of 2018.


Some innovation discourses have such intuitive appeal that their credibility is almost taken for granted. Success and failure of innovations is one such discourse. Although there has been numerous academic literature on the causes of success and failure of innovations since the 1940s, such as the infamous Betamax cassette, little attention has been given to the concept of success or failure. Business school case studies and other journals, almost without exception, seem to imply that success and failure are self-evident and rely…

Recurring financial crisis in Argentina

The theories of economic growth, introduced in the early post-Keynesian model of economic growth, have proved to be a powerful way of thinking about economic development. Many governments of developed and emerging economies praise them as their guiding star; so do many economists and policymakers at international organizations and intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund.

Although many economic growth theories like the Harrod-Domar model are in danger of becoming victims of their own success, with broad dissemination, due to the complex and elusive nature of the quest for growth, debt policy has not failed everywhere…

My goal is to empower women who own small businesses in Africa

As a child growing up in the Gambia, I made hundreds of trips to the market with my mother to buy groceries. The scene is a network of buyers and sellers, usually women doing the selling — who make their profit selling mostly vegetables and seafood, and then using their earnings to buy groceries for their own families. Unfortunately, the scene of many Gambian markets haven’t changed much, and nor has the financial well-being of most of the women who support this infrastructure.

A marketplace for private investments, with over $380M in equity value

When people refer to EquityZen as the NASDAQ of private markets, it’s not because it’s a stock exchange where brokers route orders for investors who think a company has good prospects. EquityZen has earned its nickname because it has proven to facilitate an online platform that allows accredited investors to buy shares in companies that are still privately held.

Platforms like this are based on the mechanics of something called private placements — they follow standardized protocols to help private companies or their shareholders sell their shares, all with company approval, and make money through commissions from the sell side…

The current state of the US economy post the Great Recession

Let’s begin with one simple fact: America is facing a post-crisis adjustment period. And the statistics are quite grim. Surely, one might think, economic weakness is simply the result of something conventional like trade deficits or static conditions of productivity than a feedback loop. Yet, despite low interest rates, investment is not booming. The problem is in people’s minds.

In fact, the labor market is in stronger shape: with a steady 5.3 percent unemployment rate in July, just above the 5 to 5.2 percent range that the Fed considers normal in the long run. But there are still some apparent…

Modou Sawo

Investor, Graduate student @ Manchester Business School, learning to code in JavaScript & Python. Site:

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